OPEN

If $G$ is a graph let $h_G(n)$ be defined such that any subgraph of $G$ on $n$ vertices can be made bipartite after deleting at most $h_G(n)$ edges.

What is the behaviour of $h_G(n)$? Is it true that $h_G(n)/n\to \infty$ for every graph $G$ with chromatic number $\aleph_1$?

A problem of Erdős, Hajnal, and Szemerédi [EHS82]. Every $G$ with chromatic number $\aleph_1$ must have $h_G(n)\gg n$ since $G$ must contain, for some $r$, $\aleph_1$ many vertex disjoint odd cycles of length $2r+1$.

On the other hand, Erdős, Hajnal, and Szemerédi proved that there is a $G$ with chromatic number $\aleph_1$ such that $h_G(n)\ll n^{3/2}$. In [Er81] Erdős conjectures that this can be improved to $\ll n^{1+\epsilon}$ for every $\epsilon>0$.

See also [74].

SOLVED

Let $\alpha$ be a cardinal or ordinal number or an order type such that every two-colouring of $K_\alpha$ contains either a red $K_\alpha$ or a blue $K_3$. For every $n\geq 3$ must every two-colouring of $K_\alpha$ contain either a red $K_\alpha$ or a blue $K_n$?

Conjectured by Erdős and Hajnal. In arrow notation, this is asking where $\alpha \to (\alpha,3)^2$ implies $\alpha \to (\alpha, n)^2$ for every finite $n$.

The answer is no, as independently shown by Schipperus [Sc99] (published in [Sc10]) and Darby [Da99].

For example, Larson [La00] has shown that this is false when $\alpha=\omega^{\omega^2}$ and $n=5$. There is more background and proof sketches in Chapter 2.9 of [HST10], by Hajnal and Larson.

OPEN

For every $x\in\mathbb{R}$ let $A_x\subset \mathbb{R}$ be a bounded set with outer measure $<1$. Must there exist an infinite independent set, that is, some infinite $X\subseteq \mathbb{R}$ such that $x\not\in A_y$ for all $x\neq y\in X$?

If the sets $A_x$ are closed and have measure $<1$, then must there exist an independent set of size $3$?

Erdős and Hajnal [ErHa60] proved the existence of arbitrarily large finite independent sets (under the assumptions in the first problem).

Erdős writes in [Er61] that Gladysz has proved the existence of an independent set of size $2$ in the second question, but I cannot find a reference.

Hechler [He72] has shown the answer to the first question is no, assuming the continuum hypothesis.

SOLVED - $250

Let $\alpha$ be the infinite ordinal $\omega^\omega$. Is it true that in any red/blue colouring of the edges of $K_\alpha$ there is either a red $K_\alpha$ or a blue $K_3$?

A problem of Erdős and Rado. For comparison, Specker [Sp57] proved this property holds when $\alpha=\omega^2$ and false when $\alpha=\omega^n$ for $3\leq n<\omega$.

This is true, and was proved by Chang [Ch72]. Milner modified his proof to prove that this remains true if we replace $K_3$ by $K_m$ for all finite $m<\omega$ (a shorter proof was found by Larson [La73]).

OPEN - $250

Let $\alpha$ be the infinite ordinal $\omega^{\omega^2}$. Is it true that in any red/blue colouring of the edges of $K_\alpha$ there is either a red $K_\alpha$ or a blue $K_3$?

OPEN - $1000

Determine which countable ordinals $\beta$ have the property that, if $\alpha=\omega^{^\beta}$, then in any red/blue colouring of the edges of $K_\alpha$ there is either a red $K_\alpha$ or a blue $K_3$.

This property holds for $\beta=2$ and not for $3\leq \beta <\omega$ (Specker [Sp57]) and for $\beta=\omega$ (Chang [Ch72]).

The first open case is $\beta=\omega^2$ (see [591]). Galvin and Larson [GaLa74] have shown that if $\beta\geq 3$ has this property then $\beta$ must be 'additively indecomposable', so that in particular $\beta=\omega^\gamma$ for some $\gamma<\omega_1$. Galvin and Larson conjecture that every $\beta\geq 3$ of this form has this property.

See also [590].

OPEN

Let $G_1$ and $G_2$ be two graphs with chromatic number $\aleph_1$. Must there be a graph $H$ with chromatic number $4$ which appears as a subgraph of both $G_1$ and $G_2$? Is there such an $H$ with chromatic number $\aleph_0$?

Erdős also asks about finding a common subgraph $H$ (with chromatic number either $4$ or $\aleph_0$) in any finite collection of graphs with chromatic number $\aleph_1$.

Every graph with chromatic number $\aleph_1$ contains all sufficiently large odd cycles (which have chromatic number $3$), see [594]. This was proved by Erdős, Hajnal, and Shelah [EHS74]. Erdős writes that 'probably' every graph with chromatic number $\aleph_1$ contains as subgraphs all graphs with chromatic number $4$ with sufficiently large girth.

OPEN - $250

Is there an infinite graph $G$ which contains no $K_4$ and is not the union of countably many triangle-free graphs?

A problem of Erdős and Hajnal. Folkman [Fo70] and Nešetřil and Rödl [NeRo75] have proved that for every $n\geq 1$ there is a graph $G$ which contains no $K_4$ and is not the union of $n$ triangle-free graphs.

OPEN

For which graphs $G_1,G_2$ is it true that

- for every $n\geq 1$ there is a graph $H$ without a $G_1$ but if the edges of $H$ are $n$-coloured then there is a monochromatic copy of $G_2$, and yet
- for every graph $H$ without a $G_1$ there is an $\aleph_0$-colouring of the edges of $H$ without a monochromatic $G_2$.

Erdős and Hajnal originally conjectured that there are no such $G_1,G_2$, but in fact $G_1=C_4$ and $G_2=C_6$ is an example. Indeed, for this pair Nešetřil and Rödl established the first property and Erdős and Hajnal the second (in fact every $C_4$-free graph is a countable union of trees).

Whether this is true for $G_1=K_4$ and $G_2=K_3$ is the content of [595].

OPEN

Let $G$ be a graph on at most $\aleph_1$ vertices which contains no $K_4$ and no $K_{\aleph_0,\aleph_0}$ (the complete bipartite graph with $\aleph_0$ vertices in each class). Is it true that
\[\omega_1^2 \to (\omega_1\omega, G)^2?\]
What about finite $G$?

Erdős and Hajnal proved that $\omega_1^2 \to (\omega_1\omega,3)^2$. Erdős originally asked this with just the assumption that $G$ is $K_4$-free, but Baumgartner proved that $\omega_1^2 \not\to (\omega_1\omega, K_{\aleph_0,\aleph_0})^2$.

SOLVED

Let $G$ be a (possibly infinite) graph and $A,B$ be disjoint independent sets of vertices. Must there exist a family $P$ of disjoint paths between $A$ and $B$ and a set $S$ which contains exactly one vertex from each path in $P$, and such that every path between $A$ and $B$ contains at least one vertex from $S$?

Sometimes known as the Erdős-Menger conjecture. When $G$ is finite this is equivalent to Menger's theorem. Erdős was interested in the case when $G$ is infinite.

This was proved by Aharoni and Berger [AhBe09].

OPEN

For which limit ordinals $\alpha$ is it true that if $G$ is a graph with vertex set $\alpha$ then $G$ must have either an infinite path or independent set on a set of vertices with order type $\alpha$?

A problem of Erdős, Hajnal, and Milner [EHM70], who proved this is true for $\alpha < \omega_1^{\omega+2}$.

Larson [La90] proved this is true for all $\alpha<2^{\aleph_0}$ assuming Martin's axiom.

OPEN

Let $(A_i)$ be a family of sets with $\lvert A_i\rvert=\aleph_0$ for all $i$, such that for any $i\neq j$ we have $\lvert A_i\cap A_j\rvert$ finite and $\neq 1$. Is there a $2$-colouring of $\cup A_i$ such that no $A_i$ is monochromatic?

A problem of Komjáth. The existence of such a $2$-colouring is sometimes known as Property B.

OPEN

Let $(A_i)$ be a family of countable sets such that $\lvert A_i\cap A_j\rvert \neq 2$ for all $i\neq j$. Is there some $C$ such that $\cup A_i$ can always be coloured with at most $C$ colours so that no $A_i$ is monochromatic?

A problem of Komjáth. If instead we have $\lvert A_i\cap A_j\rvert \neq 1$ then Komjáth showed that this is possible with at most $\aleph_0$ colours.

OPEN

Let $X$ be a set of cardinality $\aleph_\omega$ and $f$ be a function from the finite subsets of $X$ to $X$ such that $f(A)\not\in A$ for all $A$. Must there exist an infinite $Y\subseteq X$ that is independent - that is, for all finite $B\subset Y$ we have $f(B)\not\in Y$?