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$100
Give a constructive proof that $R(k)>C^k$ for some constant $C>1$.
Erdős gave a simple probabilistic proof that $R(k) \gg k2^{k/2}$. Equivalently, this question asks for an explicit construction of a graph on $n$ vertices which does not contain any clique or independent set of size $\geq c\log n$ for some constant $c>0$. Cohen [Co15] (see the introduction for further history) constructed a graph on $n$ vertices which does not contain any clique or independent set of size \[\geq 2^{(\log\log n)^{C}}\] for some constant $C>0$. Li [Li23b] has recently improved this to \[\geq (\log n)^{C}\] for some constant $C>0$.
Additional thanks to: Jesse Goodman, Mehtaab Sawhney