SOLVED

If $\mathbb{N}$ is 2-coloured then must there exist a monochromatic three-term arithmetic progression $x,x+d,x+2d$ such that $d>x$?

Erdös writes 'perhaps this is easy or false'. It is not true for four-term arithmetic progressions: colour the integers in $[3^{2k},3^{2k+1})$ red and all others blue.

Ryan Alweiss has provided the following simple argument showing that the answer is yes: suppose we have some red/blue colouring without this property. Without loss of generality, suppose $1$ is coloured red, and then either $3$ or $5$ must be blue.

Suppose first that $3$ is blue. If $n\geq 6$ is red then (considering $1,n,2n-1$) we deduce $2n-1$ is blue, and then (considering $3,n+1,2n-1$) we deduce that $n+1$ is red. In particular the colouring must be eventually constant, and we are done.

Now suppose that $5$ is blue. Arguing similarly (considering $1,n,2n-1$ and $5,n+2,2n-1$) we deduce that if $n\geq 8$ is red then $n+2$ is also red, and we are similarly done, since the colouring must be eventually constant on some congruence class modulo $2$.