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Suppose $G$ is a graph on $n$ vertices which contains no complete graph or independent set on $\gg \log n$ many vertices. Must $G$ contain $\gg n^{5/2}$ induced subgraphs which pairwise differ in either the number of vertices or the number of edges?
A problem of Erdős, Faudree, and Sós, who proved there exist $\gg n^{3/2}$ many such subgraphs, and note that $n^{5/2}$ would be best possible.

This was proved by Kwan and Sudakov [KwSu21].

Additional thanks to: Zach Hunter