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Is it true that all sufficiently large $n$ can be written as $2^k+m$ for some $k\geq 0$, where $\Omega(m)<\log\log m$? (Here $\Omega(m)$ is the number of prime divisors of $m$ counted with multiplicity.) What about $<\epsilon \log\log m$? Or some more slowly growing function?
It is easy to see by probabilistic methods that this holds for almost all integers. Romanoff [Ro34] showed that a positive density set of integers are representable as the sum of $2^k+p$ for prime $p$, and Erdős used covering systems to show that there is a positive density set of integers which cannot be so represented.