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Let $1\leq k<\ell$ be integers and define $F_k(N,\ell)$ to be minimal such that every set $A\subset \mathbb{N}$ of size $N$ which contains at least $F_k(N,\ell)$ many $k$-term arithmetic progressions must contain an $\ell$-term arithmetic progression. Find good upper bounds for $F_k(N,\ell)$. Is it true that \[F_3(N,4)=o(N^2)?\] Is it true that for every $\ell>3$ \[\lim_{N\to \infty}\frac{\log F_3(N,\ell)}{\log N}=2?\]
Erdős remarks the upper bound $o(N^2)$ is certainly false for $\ell >\epsilon \log N$. The answer is yes: Fox and Pohoata [FoPo20] have shown that, for all fixed $1\leq k<\ell$, \[F_k(N,\ell)=N^{2-o(1)}\] and in fact \[F_{k}(N,\ell) \leq \frac{N^2}{(\log\log N)^{C_\ell}}\] where $C_\ell>0$ is some constant.